Report Animal Concerns

Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory

The clinical pathology laboratory is part of the ULAM Pathology Core. This service offers animal hematology (complete blood counts), animal serum chemistry, and other animal body fluid analyses for non-clinical research projects. We also provide diagnostic support for the veterinary care program at the University of Michigan. 

Oversight is provided by board-certified veterinary pathologists. Technical staff have certification and/or experience in histology or animal health related fields. Quality assurance is maintained through the use of internal SOPs, peer review, and participation in an externally administered quality assurance program. 

Only animal samples are accepted for clinical pathology testing. Sample collection must be conducted in compliance with a current animal use protocol from U-M or your institution.

Available Tests

Sample technique training
Contact the ULAM Training Core at ulam-trainingcore@umich.edu.

Assistance with sample collection
Contact ulam-techservices@umich.edu.

Additional tests may be available
Contact ULAM Pathology Core staff for off-site testing details.

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Test Parameters
Total WBC, 5-part differential, RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT

Sample Collection
WHOLE BLOOD samples can only be drawn into EDTA (lavender) tubes. The Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory recommends Sarstedt Microvette 100 REF :20.1278. or Becton EDTA microtainers REF:365973. Immediately flick tubes with your finger and place on rocker to ensure anticoagulant is adequately mixed.

Storage
Sample can be stored at 2-5C for up to 24 hours

Volume
Minimum of 50ul to 100ul WHOLE BLOOD in Sarstedt tubes, >100ul in EDTA microtainers

Species
All mammalian species

Test Performed
In house

Comments
Advance notice of sample submission will ensure timely processing. Samples submitted on Fridays may be sent out at an additional cost, or may not be performed depending on the overtime availability of technicians.

Manual Differential

Test Parameters
% of bands and segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

Sample Collection
WHOLE BLOOD samples can only be drawn into EDTA (lavender) tubes. The Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory recommends Sarstedt Microvette 100 REF :20.1278. or Becton EDTA microtainers REF:365973. Immediately flick tubes with your finger and place on rocker to ensure anticoagulant is adequately mixed.

Storage
Sample can be stored at 2-5C for up to 24 hours

Volume
Minimum of 50ul to 100ul WHOLE BLOOD in Sarstedt tubes, >100ul in EDTA microtainers

Species
Mouse, Rat, Guinea Pig, Rabbit, Sheep, Pig, Dog, Cat, NHP

Test Performed
In house

Reticulocyte Count

Test Parameters
% of reticulocytes in red blood cell population

Sample Collection
WHOLE BLOOD samples can only be drawn into EDTA (lavender) tubes. The Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory recommends Sarstedt Microvette 100 REF :20.1278. or Becton EDTA microtainers REF:365973. Immediately flick tubes with your finger and place on rocker to ensure anticoagulant is adequately mixed.

Storage
Sample can be stored at 2-5C for up to 24 hours

Volume
Minimum of 50ul to 100ul WHOLE BLOOD in Sarstedt tubes, >100ul in EDTA microtainers

Species
Mouse, Rat, Guinea Pig, Rabbit, Sheep, Pig, Dog, Cat, NHP

Test Performed
In house

Spun Hematocrit

Test Parameters
Relative volume of erythrocytes (reported in %)

Sample Collection
WHOLE BLOOD samples can only be drawn into EDTA (lavender) tubes. The Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory recommends Sarstedt Microvette 100 REF :20.1278. or Becton EDTA microtainers REF:365973. Immediately flick tubes with your finger and place on rocker to ensure anticoagulant is adequately mixed.

Storage
Sample can be stored at 2-5C for up to 24 hours

Volume
Minimum of 50ul to 100ul WHOLE BLOOD in Sarstedt tubes, >100ul in EDTA microtainers

Species
Mouse, Rat, Guinea Pig, Rabbit, Sheep, Pig, Dog, Cat, NHP

Test Performed
In house

Blood Smear Slide Preparation

Test Parameters
Nothing is reported, slides only

Sample Collection
WHOLE BLOOD samples can only be drawn into EDTA (lavender) tubes. The Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory recommends Sarstedt Microvette 100 REF :20.1278. or Becton EDTA microtainers REF:365973. Immediately flick tubes with your finger and place on rocker to ensure anticoagulant is adequately mixed.

Storage
Sample can be stored at 2-5C for up to 24 hours

Volume
Minimum of 50ul to 100ul WHOLE BLOOD in Sarstedt tubes, >100ul in EDTA microtainers

Species
Mouse, Rat, Guinea Pig, Rabbit, Sheep, Pig, Dog, Cat, NHP

Test Performed
In house

Prothrombin time / Partial Thromboplastin time PT/PTT

Test Parameters
Seconds

Sample Collection
MUST fully fill a blue top tube (citrate) for collection. Submit immediately to the Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory.

Storage
Samples that will not be processed in 24 hours can be stored as frozen plasma.

Volume
Full blue top tube to ensure correct anticoagulant to blood ratio.

Species
Any species may be submitted, but reference ranges are only available for some.

Test Performed
Send Out

Electrolytes

Test Parameters
Na, K, Cl

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator tubes is preferred. No additive tubes are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes (red tops) must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
150ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Liver Panel

Test Parameters
ALT, AST, ALP, TBili, ALB

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
100ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Pig Liver Panel

Test Parameters
AST, ALP, TBili, ALB

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Test Performed
In House

Renal Panel

Test Parameters
BUN, Creat

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
50ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Mini Liver Panel

Test Parameters
ALT, AST

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
50ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Mini Chemistry Panel

Test Parameters
ALB, ALP, ALT, Ca, BUN, Creat, T.Pro, Gluc, Tbili

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
120ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Pig Mini Panel

Test Parameters
ALB, ALP, Ca, BUN, Creat, T.Prot, Gluc, T.Bili

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
100ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Full Chemistry Panel

Test Parameters
ALB, ALP, ALT, AST, BUN, Ca, Chol, CK, Creat, Gluc, T.Bili, T.Prot, Trig, Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl)

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
270uL SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Full Chemistry Panel NO electrolytes

Test Parameters
ALB, ALP, ALT, AST, BUN, Ca, Chol, CK, Creat, Gluc, T.Bili, T.Prot, Trig, Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl)

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
150ul SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Pig Full Chemistry Panel

Test Parameters
ALB, ALP, AST, BUN, Ca, Chol, CK, Creat, Gluc, T.Bili, T.Prot, Trig, Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl)

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Any Single Chemistry

Test Parameters
Choose: ALB, ALP, ALT, AST, BUN, Ca, Chol, CK, Creat, Gluc, T,Bili, Mg, Phos, T. Prot, Trig

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
Gel separator (yellow and tiger tops) tubes may be frozen once centrifuged. No additive tubes must be spun and serum removed before freezing.

Volume
50uL SERUM

Test Performed
In House

Resting Cortisol

Test Parameters
Cortisol

Sample Collection
Whole blood in gel separator (yellow and tiger top) tubes is preferred. No additive tubes (red tops) are permitted but reduce serum recovery volumes.

Storage
7 days serum at 4C, 3 months if frozen

Volume
Minimum 100-200ul serum

Species
Any species may be submitted, but reference ranges are only available for some.

Test Performed
Send Out

Routine Urinalysis

Test Parameters
Color, Clarity, Specific gravity by refractometer, pH, Protein, Glucose, Ketones, Urobiligen, Bilirubin, Blood, #RBC per HPF, #WBC per HPF

Sample Collection
Ideally, urine is collected by a sterile method into a sterile container. Non-sterile samples cannot be submitted for microbiology.

Storage
Urine should be examined as soon as possible after collection, because artifacts will occur in the urine over time (cells lyse, crystals form in vitro). If a delay is anticipated before analysis, the urine should be refrigerated. Refrigerated urine should always be brought to room temperature before testing. If analysis cannot be performed promptly (< 30 minutes), refrigeration will slow microbial growth and tends to stabilize most urine components for up to 12 hours (rewarm to room temperature before analysis).

Volume
1mL urine minimum

Test Performed
In House

Complete Urinalysis

Test Parameters
Routine analysis, casts per LPF, bacteria, mucous, epithelial cells, crystals

Sample Collection
Ideally, urine is collected by a sterile method into a sterile container. Non-sterile samples cannot be submitted for microbiology.

Storage
Urine should be examined as soon as possible after collection, because artifacts will occur in the urine over time (cells lyse, crystals form in vitro). If a delay is anticipated before analysis, the urine should be refrigerated. Refrigerated urine should always be brought to room temperature before testing. If analysis cannot be performed promptly (< 30 minutes), refrigeration will slow microbial growth and tends to stabilize most urine components for up to 12 hours (rewarm to room temperature before analysis).

Volume
1mL urine minimum

Test Performed
In House

Urine Protein / Creatinine ratio UPC

Test Parameters
Urine protein divided by creatinine value gives the ratio

Sample Collection
Ideally, urine is collected by a sterile method into a sterile container. Non-sterile samples cannot be submitted for microbiology.

Storage
Urine should be examined as soon as possible after collection, because artifacts will occur in the urine over time (cells lyse, crystals form in vitro). If a delay is anticipated before analysis, the urine should be refrigerated. Refrigerated urine should always be brought to room temperature before testing. If analysis cannot be performed promptly (< 30 minutes), refrigeration will slow microbial growth and tends to stabilize most urine components for up to 12 hours (rewarm to room temperature before analysis).

Volume
100uL urine

Test Performed
Send Out

McMaster’s

Test Parameters
Eggs per gram of feces

Sample Collection
Fresh feces free of bedding or feed in an airtight container. Note: Fresh samples will yield more accurate results since eggs may hatch within hours.

Storage
Fresh feces can be refrigerated for up to 1 week

Volume
5-10 grams

Test Performed
In House

Fecal Flotation

Test Parameters
Identify parasites present in sample

Sample Collection
Fresh feces free of bedding or feed in an airtight container. Note: Fresh samples will yield more accurate results since eggs may hatch within hours.

Storage
Fresh feces can be refrigerated for up to 1 week

Volume
5-10 grams

Test Performed
In House

Direct Smear for Parasite

Test Parameters
Identify parasites present in sample

Sample Collection
Fresh feces free of bedding or feed in an airtight container. Note: Fresh samples will yield more accurate results since eggs may hatch within hours.

Storage
Fresh feces can be refrigerated for up to 1 week

Volume
5-10 grams

Test Performed
In House

Direct Smear for Bacteria

Test Parameters
Concentrations of camplyobacter or clostridium colonies

Sample Collection
Fresh feces free of bedding or feed in an airtight container

Storage
Fresh feces can be refrigerated for up to 1 week

Volume
5-10 grams

Test Performed
In House

Ectoparasite Exam (tape, slide, pelt)

Test Parameters
Identify parasites present in sample

Sample Collection
Slide preps must use Shandon’s mount with toulene base. Tape and pelt preps must use translucent tape.

Storage
Slides can be stored at room temperature. Pelts must be read the same day.

Test Performed
In House

Ceca

Test Parameters
Pinworm species in > or < 5 quantities

Sample Collection
Entire cecum in saline solution in an airtight container

Storage
Refrigerate 2 days

Volume
3 mice ceca per cup or one rat

Test Performed
In House

PCR Fur Mite Swabs

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Polyester tipped swabs snapped off into sterile tubes

Storage
Minus 20 Freezer can hold for months

Volume
Up to 10 locations can be on a single swab

Test Performed
Send Out

PCR Fecal Pellets

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Use clean gloves or sterile forceps to drop into sterile tubes

Storage
Helicobacter and MNV can be room temperature, but all other viruses must be stored frozen and shipped frozen

Volume
Pellets from 10 animals can be pooled in a single tube, or individually 2-3 pellets per animal

Test Performed
Send Out

PCR Pinworm

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Use clean gloves or sterile forceps to drop into sterile tubes

Storage
Room temperature

Volume
3 pellets per cage or animal, up to 12 pellets can be pooled per tube

Test Performed
Send Out

PCR Serum

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Whole blood drawn into serum separator (yellow tops) tubes. Centrifufge and remove serum.

Storage
Separated serum must be stored and shipped frozen

Volume
20ul SERUM minimum

Test Performed
Send Out

B Virus Serology

Test Parameters
Titre values

Sample Collection
Whole blood drawn into serum separator (yellow tops) tubes. Centrifuge and remove serum.

Storage
Separated serum must be stored and shipped frozen

Volume
1-2mL SERUM

Test Performed
Send Out – Note: Must be shipped on ice packs as category B unless animal is known to be positive.

B Virus Virology

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Polyester tipped swabs snapped off into Remel M4 media tubes

Storage
Swabs must be stored and shipped frozen

Volume
SOP for exposure dictates swab sites

Test Performed
Send Out – Note: Must be shipped on dry ice as category B unless animal is known to be positive.

General Culture and Sensitivity

Test Parameters
Identification of bacteria and susceptibility table

Sample Collection
Sterile swab collection technique, use Amies media without charcoal

Storage
Refrigerate for up to 2 days only

Volume
Areas can be pooled on one swab if necessary

Test Performed
Send Out

Blood Culture

Test Parameters
Identification of bacteria and susceptibility table

Sample Collection
Specific collection vials MUST be used. For clinical cases vet techs will supply, for research cases the Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory will supply once requested. Sterile technique MUST be used.

Storage
Room temperature – DO NOT REFRIGERATE

Volume
If you cannot obtain 10 mL of blood, divide the blood as follows:

  • If >1mL divide equally between both the REDOX (Purple/Aerobic) and REDOX 2 (Red/Anaerbic)
  • If <1mL but >0.5mL then place 0.5mL in purple/aerobic and remainder in red/anaerobic
  • If 0.5 mL put the entire specimen in purple/aerobic bottle

Test Performed
Send Out

Comments
Ship at room temperature

Anaerobic

Test Parameters
Identification of bacteria and susceptibility table

Sample Collection
Specific collection vials MUST be used (Star transport swabs). Sterile technique.

Storage
Room temperature – DO NOT REFRIGERATE. Sample viability for only 48 hours once swabbed

Volume
Areas can be pooled on one swab if necessary

Test Performed
Send Out

Comments
Ship at room temperature

Fecal Culture

Test Parameters
Only Salmonella unless otherwise requested

Sample Collection
Fecal sample in sterile container or swab. Anaerobes (i.e., Clostridium) must be collected in Star transport media.

Storage
Refrigerate Volume 1 g minimum is necessary for Salmonella recovery

Test Performed
Send Out

Comments
Unless the DCPAH form lists a history of severe diarrhea, toxigenic E. Coli will not be included. Campylobacter needs Cary-Blair media for recovery

Dermatophytes

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Small amount of hairs and scales collected from peripheral and center of lesion into a sterile container

Storage
Room temperature

Volume
Small amounts representative of the lesion

Test Performed
Send Out

Verify Biological Indicators

Test Parameters
Positive or negative

Sample Collection
Indicators can be submitted up to 72 hours after autoclave cycle

Storage
Room temperature

Volume
N/A

Test Performed
In House

Comments
Verify indicators cannot be submitted on Fridays or before holidays because samples must be read at 24 hours

ULAM Pathology Core MiCORES Submission Guide

Step-by-step help for account setup, submitting service requests, and more. Available via PDF download.

download the guide

Submit a Request in MiCORES

All ULAM Pathology Core service requests are managed via MiCORES. Submit samples for testing after reviewing our sample guidelines.

Log in to micores

ULAM Clinical Case Submissions

Submit clinical case samples to the ULAM Pathology Core for processing.

ULAM Employees Only

submit samples

Rates – ULAM Pathology Core Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory Testing

For more information about ULAM Pathology Core technician fees or hourly self-service rates, please visit the main ULAM Pathology Core page.

ULAM Pathology Core – Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory Testing Rates

DESCRIPTION

RATE

EFFECTIVE

1 Chemistry Only/ Animal

$ 26.48

07/01/2023

Custom Panel, 2 Chemistries/Animal

$ 43.04

07/01/2023

Custom Panel, 3 Chemistries/Animal

$ 54.61

07/01/2023

Custom Panel, 4 Chemistries/Animal

$ 63.68

07/01/2023

Custom Panel, 5 Chemistries/Animal

$ 72.23

07/01/2023

Add-on (to panel), One Chemistry

$ 7.58

07/01/2023

Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory Technician Labor/Hour Regular

$ 60.00

07/01/2023

Animal Clinical Pathology Laboratory Technician Labor/Hour Overtime

$ 90.00

07/01/2023

ADS – C. Difficile ELISA

$ 85.51

07/01/2023

ADS – C. Perfringens ELISA

$ 65.62

07/01/2023

ADS – Clostridia ELISA

$ 111.34

07/01/2023

ADS – Fecal Culture

$ 63.63

07/01/2023

ADS – General Culture

$ 79.53

07/01/2023

ADS PCR for SRV

$ 169.02

07/01/2023

ADS – Urine Culture

$ 71.57

07/01/2023

ADS – Urine Culture & Susceptibility

$ 71.57

07/01/2023

Anaerobic Culture

$ 52.48

07/01/2023

Blood Culture & Susceptibility

$ 117.38

07/01/2023

Blood Smear (prep only)

$ 14.39

07/01/2023

Complete Blood Count (CBC) w/ Auto Differential

$ 28.48

07/01/2023

Direct Smear for Parasites

$ 32.84

07/01/2023

Ectoparasite Exam, Microscopic

$ 13.18

07/01/2023

Electrolytes

$ 25.63

07/01/2023

Fecal Culture & Susceptibility

$ 104.65

07/01/2023

Fecal Flotation

$ 43.22

07/01/2023

Full Chemistry Panel

$ 74.78

07/01/2023

Fungal Culture

$ 62.11

07/01/2023

General Culture & Susceptibility

$ 91.96

07/01/2023

Hematocrit, Spun

$ 19.78

07/01/2023

Herpes B Cell Culture, Virology

$ 292.63

07/01/2023

Herpes B Serology – Antibody

$ 156.07

07/01/2023

Insulated Sample Transport Box

$ 30.25

07/01/2023

Laboratory Sendout Processing Fee

$ 28.41

07/01/2023

Liver Panel

$ 53.99

07/01/2023

Manual (WBC) Differential

$ 40.68

07/01/2023

McMasters Fecal Exam

$ 26.02

07/01/2023

Mini Chem Panel

$ 54.66

07/01/2023

Mini Liver Panel

$ 30.60

07/01/2023

Pig Full Chemistry Panel

$ 80.08

07/01/2023

PT/PTT

$ 75.76

07/01/2023

Renal Panel

$ 38.95

07/01/2023

Reticulocyte Count

$ 41.14

07/01/2023

Room Temp Sample Transport Box

$ 14.61

07/01/2023

Total Protein, Refractometer

$ 23.10

07/01/2023

Urinalysis, Complete

$ 48.26

07/01/2023

Urinalysis, Routine

$ 46.91

07/01/2023

Verify Ampule (autoclave control)

$ 22.91

07/01/2023

*Rates subject to change.

References and Resources

HT5 Scatterplots (PDF download)

Dilution Chemistry Bias (PDF download)

ULAM Diagnostic Case Request Form
ULAM Employees Only. Requires special permissions and valid Level-1 U-M login credentials.

Questions?

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